First and foremost full tests of blood are to be carried out. Fasting blood sugar is tested. It should be preferably be below 120 units. Fasting Lipid Profile should be checked which also test cholesterol in the body. It should be normal range. HbA1c checks for sugar levels of the body since last three months, it should be less than 70.
Hemoglobin should be checked to know if the patient has anemia. 24 Hour urinary protein are to be checked for the checking the status of kidney. All they are risk factors or developing diabetic retinopathy.
Fundus – Diabetic Retina Checkup of the patient should be carried out every six months.
OCT (Macula) – Optical coherence tomography of the eyes should be done to check for any edema in the retina due to diabetes (macular edema). It checks for any exudates in the layers of retina.
FFA – FFA is done by injecting dye in arm of the patient. Dye leakage is detected by special machine which with special light detects any leakage of the vessel.
FFA is very important to detect if there is any ischemia in the retina. It helps us to check if the disease is advanced (Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy) or in early stage (Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy)